Academic Collaborations

Higher Education System in India
Higher Education in India has evolved in distinct and divergent streams with each stream monitored by an apex body, indirectly controlled by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. The state governments mostly fund the Universities. However, there are over 46 important Universities called Central Universities, which are maintained by the Union Government and because of relatively large funding, they have an edge over the others. The engineering and business schools are monitored and accredited by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) while medical education is monitored and accredited by the Medical Council of India (MCI). Like-wise, the Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR) monitors agriculture education and research. Apart from these, National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) controls all teacher-training institutions in the country.

As of now, there are over 800 Universities including Central Universities, State Universities, Deemed Universities, Institutions established under State Legislation, and Institutes of National Importance. There are over 40,500 colleges affiliated to various Universities in India. An estimated 20 million students are enrolled in institutions of higher education in India.

The higher education system is principally divided into three levels, namely:

  Undergraduate or Bachelor’s Level (e.g. B.Sc., B.A., B.E., M.B.B.S., LL.B., etc.)
  Graduate or Master’s Level (e.g. M.Sc., M.A., M.Tech., M.S., LL.M., etc.)
  Doctoral (Ph.D.)

Bachelor’s degrees in science, arts, and commerce take three years of study but in vocational subjects like pharmacy, dentistry, architecture, medicine, engineering, and technology the duration may vary between four to five and a half years. Many Universities and colleges offer ‘honors’ courses at undergraduate level, which may not be longer in duration but indicate greater depth of study. Diploma courses are also available at the undergraduate level and the duration of their study may vary from one to three years.

Master’s degree is normally of two-year duration. Admission to graduate programs in engineering and technology is done on the basis of a test called GATE. Diploma programs are also available at the Master’s level and the duration of their study may vary from one to two years.

Indian students interested in pursuing further studies may either directly register for Ph.D. or do a pre-doctoral program called Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) which is either completely research based or may also include some course work. It takes lesser time to complete Ph.D. for those who have already done M.Phil.
Accreditation for universities in India is required by law unless a specific university was created through an act of Parliament. Without accreditation, institutions have no legal right to call themselves as University / Vishwvidyalaya and to award ‘degrees’. Such degrees are not treated as valid for academic/employment purposes. The University Grants Commission Act 1956 explains, "the right of conferring or granting degrees shall be exercised only by a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, or a State Act, or an Institution deemed to be University or an institution specially empowered by an Act of the Parliament to confer or grant degrees. Thus, any institution which has not been created by an enactment of Parliament or a State Legislature or has not been granted the status of a Deemed to be University is not entitled to award a degree."

Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission:
  All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
  Distance Education Council (DEC)
  Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
  Bar Council of India (BCI)
  National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)
  National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
  Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
  Medical Council of India (MCI)
  Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
  Indian Nursing Council (INC)
  Dental Council of India (DCI)
  Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)
  Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)
  Veterinary Council of India (VCI)
Criticism of Indian Education System
Modern education in India is often criticized for being based on rote learning. Emphasis is laid on passing examinations with high percentage of marks. Very few institutions give importance to developing personality and creativity among students. Recently, India has seen a rise in instances of student suicides due to low marks and failures, especially in metropolitan cities, even though such cases are not common in rural areas.

The presence of a number of boards for higher secondary education (SSLC, ICSE, CBSE, IBIGCSE ) leads to non-uniformity. ICSE and CBSE boards are sometimes favorably considered at the time of admission, although it cannot be said with certainty that their syllabuses are harder. A large number of SSLC (State board) students therefore complain that their ICSE and CBSE counterparts are given an advantage during college admissions, which are extremely competitive. The syllabi prescribed by the various boards are accused of being archaic and some textbooks (mostly ones written for the SSC) contain many errors.

The boards have been recently trying to improve quality of education by increasing percentage of marks for practicals and projects. However, critics say even this is memorized by students (or even plagiarized). This is attributed to pressure from parents who are eager to see high scores more than overall development.

Many people also criticize the caste, language and religion-based reservations in the Indian education system. Many allege that very few of the weaker castes get the benefit of reservations and that forged caste certificates abound. Educational institutions also can seek religious minority (non-Hindu) or linguistic minority status. In such institutions, 50% of the seats are reserved for students belonging to a particular religion or having particular mother-tongue(s). For example, many colleges run by the Jesuits and Salesians have 50% seats reserved for Roman Catholics. In case of languages, an institution can declare itself linguistic minority only in states in which the language is not official language. For example, an engineering college can declare itself as linguistic-minority (Hindi) institution in the state of Maharashtra (where official state language is Marathi), but not in Madhya Pradesh or Uttar Pradesh (where the official state language is Hindi). These reservations are said to be a cause of heartbreak among many. Many students with poor marks manage to get admissions, while meritorious students are left out. Critics say that such reservations may eventually create rifts in the society.

The general corruption prevalent in India is also an issue in the Education system. Engineering, medical and other lucrative seats are sometimes sold for high prices and ridden with nepotism and power-play. Student politics is also a major issue, as many institutions are run by politicians. Ragging is a major problem in colleges, with many students dying due to ragging every year. Some state governments have made ragging a criminal offence.
Rationale for Academic Collaborations
India is rushing headlong toward economic success and modernization, counting on high-tech industries such as information technology and biotechnology to propel the nation to prosperity. Unfortunately, its weak higher education sector constitutes the Achilles' Heel of this strategy. Its systematic disinvestment in higher education in recent years has yielded neither world-class research nor very many highly trained scholars, scientists, or managers to sustain high-tech development.

India's main competitor — especially China — is investing in large and differentiated higher education systems. China is providing access to large numbers of students at the bottom of the academic system while at the same time building some research-based universities that are able to compete with the world's best institutions. The recent London Times Higher Education Supplement ranking of the world's top 200 Universities included three in China, three in Hong Kong, three in South Korea, one in Taiwan, and one in India (an Indian Institute of Technology at number 41— the specific campus was not specified). These countries are positioning themselves for leadership in the knowledge-based economies of the coming era.

There was a time when countries like India could achieve economic success with cheap labor and low-tech manufacturing. Low wages still help, but contemporary large-scale development requires a sophisticated and at least partly knowledge-based economy. India has chosen that path, but finds a major stumbling block in its university system. India has significant advantages in the 21st century knowledge race. It has a large higher education sector — the second largest in the world in student numbers, after China. It uses English as a primary language of higher education and research. It has a long academic tradition. Academic freedom is respected. There are a small number of high quality institutions, departments, and centers that can form the basis of quality sector in higher education.

Yet the weaknesses far outweigh the strengths. India educates approximately 20 per cent of its young people in higher education compared with more than 50 percent in the major industrialized countries and 30 per cent in China. Almost all of the world's academic systems resemble a pyramid, with a small high quality tier at the top and a massive sector at the bottom. At present, the world-class institutions are mainly limited to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and perhaps a few others such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences and the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. These institutions, combined, enroll well under 0.5 per cent of the student population.

Even the small top tier of higher education faces serious problems. Many IIT graduates, well trained in technology, have chosen not to contribute their skills to the burgeoning technology sector in India. Perhaps half leave the country immediately upon graduation to pursue advanced study abroad — and most do not return. A stunning 86 per cent of students in science and technology fields from India who obtain degrees in the United States do not return home immediately following their study. A corps of dedicated and able teachers work at the IITs and IIMs, but the lure of jobs abroad and in the private sector makes it increasingly difficult to lure the best and brightest to the academic profession.

India has survived with an increasingly mediocre higher education system for decades. Now as India strives to compete in a globalized economy in areas that require highly trained professionals, the quality of higher education becomes increasingly important. So far, India's large educated population base and its reservoir of at least moderately well trained university graduates have permitted the country to move ahead. But the competition is fierce. China in particular is heavily investing in improving its best universities with the aim of making a small group of them world class in the coming decade, and building them as internationally competitive research universities. Other Asian countries are also upgrading higher education with the aim of building world class-universities.

To compete successfully in the knowledge-based economy of the 21st century, India needs enough colleges and universities that not only produce bright graduates for export but can also support sophisticated research in a number of scientific and scholarly fields and produce at least some of the knowledge and technology needed for an expanding economy. How can India build a higher education system that will permit it to join developed economies?

Academic collaboration programs between the foreign universities and Indian institutions and organizations are aimed at meeting the rapidly growing Indian educational needs by leveraging mutual capabilities. A part of the core mission of all educational institutions is to prepare their students to compete in the global economy. These collaboration programs contribute to that goal by giving students and faculty members international experience and global perspectives.

Research Collaborations

International research collaboration has always helped scientists to keep abreast of international science and to share expertise and resources. Today, one-fifth of the world's scientific papers are coauthored internationally — a result of increasingly easy communication and cross-border travel. However, a new character of international collaboration is emerging, as scientific research has become an integral part of economic and innovation policy. International collaboration has also become a key element in globalization strategy. Research collaboration supports research, training and knowledge transfer in everything from architecture to zoology, apart from supporting world-class research facilities. It also promotes public engagement in science, engineering and technology. The knowledge and expertise gained through investment in people and innovation allows the world to maintain a technological leading edge, build strong global economy and improve quality of life for people. International research collaboration requires work in partnership with other research investors including government departments and agencies, universities and colleges, and industry. Research collaboration extends across disciplines and organizational boundaries. Some of the main fields for research collaboration are:


Recent trends indicate that America is keen to establish connections with the new powerhouse economy of India — not only in downstream industries but also in upstream science. The world as a whole is increasingly united on the need for research and innovation to tackle global challenges such as poverty and climate change. The growing international concern regarding greenhouse gases, crises in Africa, or diseases in developing countries are leading to new hopes about international research collaboration to address these issues.

Today, many countries are making concerted efforts to attract "the best and the brightest" students for their research programs. There is stepped-up competition for international students undertaken by several countries — most notably the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and China. India is on the threshold of joining this competition. Another approach to international collaboration is to invest in world-class research centers of excellence. Singapore was one of the first countries to use public money for attracting world-class institutions. Singapore has become a major Asian education and research center, by creating high-profile international partnerships (with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford, Berkeley, and Wharton—to name but a few), inviting world-class international universities to open campuses (e.g., INSEAD, University of Chicago Business School, and Waseda), and by its ambitious biomedical science park, Biopolis. India has a great opportunity to enter into similar partnerships with reputable international universities.

For a developing country such as India, these steps are likely to lead to increases in scholarship and research collaboration opportunities. International research collaboration has entered an era in which networking has a direct economic significance. Some governments are already beginning to pay a premium to become hubs in global excellence networks. These developments will produce significant changes in the world's research capacity and yield new centers of excellence. The Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) is the premier industrial research and development organization in India. Its chain of 39 R&D laboratories with 80 field stations spread across India are manned by 10,000 highly qualified scientists and engineers and 13,000 auxiliary and other staff, covering almost the entire spectrum of industrial R&D, ranging from aerospace to mining, microelectronics to metallurgy. CSIR can play an important role in promoting international research collaboration. There are also a good number of universities and colleges in India that have research programs and these trends indicate opportunities for capacity building for research in India.

With several billion dollars in annual research funded by the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, corporate partners, and other Federal and Private Foundations, foreign universities are major research centers in the world. Award-winning faculty members provide undergraduate and graduate students with research opportunities in a multitude of disciplines. American universities work with faculty and outside partners to capitalize on opportunities to expand research and scholarship across all intellectual fields. This includes developing new programs, making strategic investments to seed new research initiatives and assisting faculty in obtaining funding from sponsors. Research collaboration between foreign universities and Indian institutions will be a “win, win” for all.

Joint / Dual Degree Programs
The on-campus programs to be offered in India by foreign universities in collaboration with Indian institutions would be undergraduate and graduate degree and diploma programs. The duration of undergraduate degree programs would be three to four years while graduate degree programs would be two years. The duration of diploma programs would be one or more years. Students will receive degrees and diplomas of the foreign universities after successful completion of the programs in India. The foreign universities and Indian institutions will administer the degree and diploma programs jointly. Indian institutions collaborating with the foreign universities will have world-class facilities such as modern classrooms, state-of-the-art laboratories, audiovisual centers, computerized libraries, video conferencing halls, software development centers, and administrative blocks.

In collaborative undergraduate programs, students who complete 12 (10+2) years of formal education will be eligible for admission. Students with undergraduate degrees (10+2+4) or (10+2+3+1) will be eligible for admission to collaborative graduate programs.

Joint / Dual Degree Programs: Collaborative programs are also sometimes known as Joint Degree programs or Dual Degree programs in India. In these programs, Indian institutions will continue to offer their regular undergraduate and graduate programs as per the Indian curricula and give Indian degrees and diplomas after successful completion. Simultaneously, Indian institutions will supplement their existing curricula with the additional curricula of foreign universities. Students who successfully complete the existing curricula and the additional curricula will be given degrees by foreign universities, in addition to Indian degrees.

AICTE: Collaborative degree programs which are technical in nature, namely, Engineering, Architecture, Computer Science, Business, Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Pharmacy, etc., may require the approval of statutory bodies such as the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi. No Objection Certificate (NOC) will be required from the foreign embassy for offering collaborative programs in India

Certificate Programs
There has been a remarkable growth in the numbers and kinds of certificate programs that are sought by students and working professionals throughout India. Certificate programs include corporate training programs, executive development programs, and management development programs. Certificate programs that consist of for-credit courses are of particular interest, because credits carry over to degree and diploma programs in foreign universities. Undergraduate and Graduate certificate programs are sought after in virtually every discipline, including in business, education, health sciences, information technology, humanities, and the arts. Certificate programs are of interest because of their short duration. Some of the Indian students who take up certificate programs offered by foreign universities in India may be interested in transferring to the foreign universities and complete the remainder of credits in residence for earning a degree or diploma.

Certificate programs usually comprise of five or six courses and students earn a maximum of 18 to 24 credits. Certificate programs may be of two-semester duration (one year), though a few select programs of one semester duration may also be offered. Undergraduate and graduate certificate programs of universities may be offered in their entirety through Indian institutions. In addition to their existing certificate programs, foreign universities may suitably tailor their existing undergraduate and graduate degree or diploma programs and offer them as certificate programs in India. Students completing the certificate programs offered through Indian institutions will be given certificates by foreign universities.

CORPORATE EDUCATION: As providers of comprehensive continuing education, foreign universities can serve as partners to companies and organizations in India. Foreign universities can draw on their resources as world-renowned universities to understand Indian organizations' needs, offer expert consultation, and develop custom educational programs which would be primarily delivered by Indian instructors who are experts in their fields. Foreign universities' reputation as valuable partners and resources, and the breadth of their programs could enable them to build an impressive roster of clients and facilitate the growth of leading corporations, public agencies, and non-profit organizations in India.

In undergraduate certificate programs, students who have completed 12th standard will be eligible for admission. In graduate certificate programs, students who have completed undergraduate degree or equivalent diploma program in any field of study will be eligible for admission. Students, who complete the certificate programs in India, will be eligible for seeking admission to undergraduate and graduate degree and diploma programs in foreign universities. Relevant tests such as IELTS, TOEFL and SAT / GMAT / GRE will be required for admission. The number of credits waived for such students will be at the discretion of foreign universities based on individual student’s academic background.
Twinning / Transfer Programs
Twinning / Transfer programs allow Indian institutions to offer undergraduate and graduate programs which will have their regular curricula. The existing curricula may be supplemented by additional curricula of the foreign universities if desired by Indian institutions. Through twinning / transfer programs, Indian students will be able to earn several credits during the course of their normal study in Indian institutions. Students will have the opportunity either to complete their studies in India or to transfer their credits to the foreign universities at any time after completing at least one year of their studies in Indian institutions. Students, who opt for transfer, can then finish their degree or diploma programs by completing the remainder of credits in residence at the foreign universities.

Twinning / Transfer programs are "win-win" situations for all concerned parties. Foreign universities will receive well-prepared students who have been instructed entirely in English and are ready to begin their major sequences. Indian institutions are strengthened by access to the latest in foreign curricular developments. Foreign-bound Indian students save substantial cost of studying abroad. Further, students will have wide range of subjects to choose from in the foreign universities, apart from the opportunity to learn in two different cultural environments, and thus becoming well-rounded learners.

Under twinning / transfer programs, students who complete at least one year of undergraduate program (10+2+1) in Indian institutions will be eligible for admission as transfer students to undergraduate programs in the foreign universities. Students who complete second year (10+2+2) or third year (10+2+3) of undergraduate program may also transfer to undergraduate programs in the foreign universities and complete the remainder of the program. IELTS / TOEFL (and SAT) will be required for admission to the foreign universities. Students who complete the first year of graduate program in Indian institutions will be eligible for admission to graduate degree and diploma programs of the foreign universities. IELTS / TOFEL (and GRE / GMAT) will be required for admission to graduate programs in the foreign universities. The number of credits to be waived for students admitted on transfer basis will be at the discretion of the foreign universities. In case, any foreign university does not have its own credential evaluation mechanism, the credential evaluation report of an established evaluation agency will form the basis for waiver of credits.

Students enrolling in the undergraduate and graduate programs in the foreign universities will be given degrees and diplomas by the foreign universities after successful completion of study. Transfer students will be charged the prevailing tuition by the foreign universities. Students who have been unable to get visas will complete their program of study in India and they would be awarded Indian degrees and diplomas by the Indian institutions concerned.

Distance Education Programs

Distance education is an emerging global phenomenon that promises to alter fundamentally the nature of traditional education and training. The increasingly pervasive nature of the Net and the Web, and the collaborative infrastructure provided by net-centric computing have led to the growth of distance education. The phenomenal growth of distance education is explained by the fact that over 90% of college students access the Internet, with 50% accessing the Web daily. Also, Indian companies and organizations are spending huge amounts on in-house training and education programs through distance and blended mode. The popularity of distance education programs has further increased with the availability of on-line discussion forums.

The growth of distance education is fast and furious world-wide including in India. As the technologies that support distance education mature and become more widely embraced, the focus on the tools and the geographic distance at which they are utilized is likely to decrease. Our fascination with the web as an exciting new medium for learning and collaboration will most likely give way to seeing it as a common utility that people make use of routinely.

Blended Learning is the process of incorporating many different learning styles that can be accomplished through the use of 'blended' virtual and physical resources. The instructor can also combine two or more methods of delivery of instruction. A typical example of the delivery method of blended learning would be a combination of technology-based materials and face-to-face sessions used together to present content. An instructor can begin a course with a well-structured introductory lesson in the classroom, and then proceed to follow-up materials online. Blended Learning can also be applied to the integration of e-learning with a Learning Management System using computers in a physical classroom, along with face-to-face instruction.

With today's prevalence of high technology in India, blended learning refers specifically to the provision or use of resources which combine e-learning (electronic) with other educational resources. Some of the advantages of blended learning include: cost effectiveness for both the Indian institutions and the students, accessibility to a post secondary education for students, and flexibility in scheduling and timetabling of course work.

Now American universities are in a position to offer "Blended Learning" programs in India through Indian institutions by combining a vigorous classroom experience, along with comprehensive online learning. Some of the benefits are:
  Blended learning won’t interfere with student's current job
  Student will cut down on commuting time and costs – save money on gas, parking, and tolls
  Student can meet and connect with classmates online and in person
  Student can enjoy learning in a hands-on environment
  Taking classes at an Indian institution closest to student's work or home means more convenience and flexibility.

Indian institutions including companies and organizations, in academic collaboration with foreign universities, will be able to offer an array of degree, diploma, and certificate programs at Bachelor’s and Master’s levels in a wide range of fields. Distance education can be offered as a dynamic, interactive learning method using a diverse array of personal computers, video devices, CD and DVD ROMs, online courses over the Internet, interactive devices, and other modern technological innovations. When each lesson or segment is completed, the student makes available the assigned work for correction, grading, comment, and subject matter guidance by qualified Indian instructors. Corrected assignments are returned to the student. This exchange fosters a personalized student-instructor relationship, which is the hallmark of distance education instruction. Students will be required to take examinations in proctored settings. Assignments will be larger, longer, and more thorough so as to test for knowledge by forcing the students to research the subject and prove that they have done the work. Midterms and Final examinations will be held at common locations so that professors can supervise directly.

The distance education programs to be offered in India by foreign universities in collaboration with Indian institutions would be undergraduate and graduate degree, diploma, and certificate programs. Students will receive degrees, diplomas, and certificates from the concerned foreign universities after successful completion of the programs in India. foreign universities and the Indian institutions will administer the programs jointly.

Following are some of the benefits for Indian students:
  Students will have access to a wide range of undergraduate (Bachelor's) and graduate (Master's ) programs of foreign universities in India.
  Tuition and fees will be in tune with the low cost of living in India. Students get valuable degrees, diplomas, and certificates of foreign universities at low cost.
  Students get first-hand knowledge of latest foreign developments, trends and techniques.
  Students will have better opportunities for employment and international careers by having degrees, diplomas, or certificates from foreign universities.
  Students will have opportunity to transfer with credits to foreign universities for further education.

Vocational Education Programs
Vocational education or vocational education and training (VET) prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology. Vocational educational in India aims to develop skilled manpower through diversified courses to meet the requirements of mainly the unorganized sector and to instill self-employment skills in people through a large number of self employment oriented courses. Vocational education is imparted through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Polytechnics. The nodal agency for grant of recognition to the I.T.I.s is NCVT which is under the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Part time programs are offered through state technical education boards or Universities who also offer full-time courses. Vocational training has been successful in India only in Industrial Training Institutes and that too in engineering trades. There are many private institutes in India which offer courses in vocational training and finishing, but most of them have not been recognized by the Government.

One of the weaknesses of Indian education system is that it does not give due importance to vocational education. As a result, there is a mismatch between the skilled manpower required and skilled manpower available. Every year India churns out millions of graduates who do not have the specific skill sets required by the market. This has resulted in a situation where on the one hand, there are scores of unemployed graduates and on the other hand, there is a huge shortage of skilled workers such as plumbers, electricians, etc.

To rectify this situation, vocational training programs in India need to be promoted in a big way.

Faculty Exchange Programs
The faculty exchange programs would provide participants with the opportunity to teach or conduct research for one semester or an academic year at an overseas university. Faculty members would benefit from exposure to a culturally varied and diverse faculty make-up, with an opportunity to exchange ideas and observe a variety of styles. The faculty exchange program is one way to take advantage of the benefits of diverse faculty. Ultimate goal of educational institutions is to develop a vibrant and diverse faculty. This process, however cannot take place overnight. It occurs slowly, one or two faculty members at a time. The need for rich variety of ideas, cultures, thoughts, and styles, however, is immediate. In order to facilitate the process, foreign universities and Indian institutions can develop plans for a faculty exchange programs. The benefit will be immediate, and students will have the opportunity to learn concepts and ideas presented in an entirely new and different manner. The faculty exchange programs present a unique opportunity for interaction between foreign universities and Indian institutions. They will create a greater bond among the concerned institutions and will be a powerful recruitment and retention tool.

To ensure that the faculty exchange runs properly, it is important to understand the responsibilities of foreign universities and Indian institutions as outlined below.

Three basic schemes may define the nature of the faculty exchange and the responsibilities of the visiting faculty member. Combinations of all three are possible as arranged in each individual case.

  Host institution will arrange housing and visiting faculty member will pay for the cost

  Visiting scholar will be provided with a salary commensurate with teaching load asked for by the host institution and agreed upon by the visitor
  Such salary may include the provision of free housing and/or board at no cost to the individual but in any case, host institution will help visitor find housing
  The host institution will assign the visiting professor an agreed upon number of courses to teach throughout the semester
  If course evaluations are issued, the host institution will forward them to the faculty visitor upon completion of the exchange semester

  Visiting scholar will be provided with lecture fees commensurate with the number of lectures asked for by the host institution and agreed upon by the visitor
  Such fees may include the provision of free housing and/or board at no cost to the individual but in any case, host institution will help visitor find housing

  The visiting faculty will be on sabbatical or equivalent leave during the proposed semester of overseas exchange
  The exchange will last one semester or one academic year as arranged in advance
  Depending on the scheme chosen, the faculty visitor will be responsible for various costs which may include room, board, personal living expenses on site, research costs, etc.
  Upon completion of the exchange, the visiting professor will submit a summary of his/her experience to the host institution and the home institution
Student Exchange Programs
A student exchange program between Indian institutions and foreign universities is a program where students choose to study abroad in partner institutions. An exchange student could live with a host family or in a designated place including hostels, affordable apartment/house or student lodge. The cost for each program differs according to countries and institutions. The participants could either apply/receive scholarship, self-funded or apply/receive loan.

Student exchanges have the aim of helping to increase the participants' understanding and tolerance of other cultures, as well as improving their language skills and broadening their social horizons. An exchange student typically stays in the host country for a relatively short period of time, often 6 to 10 months. Some students on exchange programs can receive academic credit from the country they study in.

  To enhance the educational experience of student
  To strengthen the networking between students and Universities
  Broaden personal and educational perspectives
  Explore, appreciate and understand different cultures
  To enhance the ability of the student in second language learning
  To eliminate fear and prejudice among nations
  Enable student to experience international education

Programs vary depending upon program length, country, content and other factors. Most program costs include insurance and other risk management components, especially health insurance. Students going on university exchange could pay tuition fees on home campus or host campus, but most of the time it is paid to home campus. Long term exchange program for university student often comes with Scholarship that covers most of the expenses including flight ticket, accommodation and daily necessities.

University students going on exchange program could choose either to live on campus or off campus. Living off campus is a popular choice among students going for exchange because they would like to be independent and learn new culture on their own. Universities that host student exchange program provide special assistance for the students who seek accommodation. Institutions in India, have on-campus housing for the international students who are on exchange or studying full time.

Partnership Programs
Academic partnership programs are established for the purpose of developing cooperative efforts to improve the academic quality of Indian secondary schools, junior colleges, and undergraduate colleges with the objective of improving the preparation of students for entry into foreign universities. Academic partnerships are aimed at:

  Transforming the relationships between educational institutions to directly benefit students;
  Improving curriculum in subject areas required for admission to foreign universities;
  Strengthening teachers' capacities to enable all students to learn the curriculum;
  Enhancing the ability of students to benefit from these changes; and
  Improving foreign universities understanding of Indian students' unique needs.

Partnerships can be developed between English-medium Indian institutions and foreign universities, so that Indian students who complete 12th standard may be admitted as freshmen in undergraduate programs of the foreign universities. Similar partnerships can be arranged with undergraduate Indian institutions and foreign universities so that students may be admitted to graduate programs after completion of undergraduate programs in India. Partnership programs with Indian institutions are important mechanisms that enhance access to undergraduate and graduate programs of the foreign universities. These programs support educational mobility and facilitate seamless acceptance of academic credit of Indian students. These programs enable Indian students to transition smoothly to foreign educational systems and help in students’ course selection, eliminate curriculum redundancies, and streamline the application review process. Indian students will not have to go through the cumbersome process of credential evaluation by foreign agencies. These programs promote understanding among educators across India and the foreign universities.

Partnership programs provide a measure of certainty to students in Indian institutions that they will be accepted in good foreign universities. Students will be spared the stress of having to prepare for the highly competitive entrance examinations in India with the knowledge that their admission in partnering foreign universities is assured. Further, students will have the option to change their field of study when they enter partnering foreign universities. This option for changing the field of study is not available in India. Tests such as IELTS, TOEFL and/or SAT / GRE will not be required for admission to the foreign universities. Through partnership programs, the foreign universities will be able to establish long-term visibility and presence in India apart from attracting a continuing stream of Indian students.
Study Abroad in India Programs
The objective of study abroad in India programs would be to provide students of foreign universities with high-quality academic study programs that foster intercultural development. These programs would help to develop competent leaders who have both the understanding and skills to effectively, humanely, and positively navigate across different cultures, in politics, education, and business.

Over the last fifteen years, India has brought itself to the center stage of the world economy. India's engineering and technical strengths are legendary. India has become a powerhouse in software development and business process outsourcing and is making great strides in manufacturing and other high technology fields. There is no doubt that India will be a major economic force in the 21st century, though it will face significant challenges in developing infrastructure and spreading these economic gains to its still overwhelmingly rural population.

Today’s competitive job market requires applicants to distinguish themselves, and international education experience is the perfect way to do so. Having international education experience is an incredible resume booster, as it shows prospective employers that the applicants are motivated, independent, and generally more qualified. Additionally, obtaining foreign language skills can make applicants eligible for a variety of jobs that they may have otherwise been unqualified for.

Studying abroad in India for a semester or year will give students a fresh perspective on themselves, India, and the world. By living in a foreign country such as India, students will constantly challenge themselves in many new and exciting ways and gain a level of independence they never knew they had. Studying abroad in India will expose them to diverse people and viewpoints, and they will get to experience a different way of life apart from their own in their country. They will be immersed in the language, culture, and people of India and will get to experience life as residents, not as mere tourists. While studying in India, they will also earn credit towards their current degree. Study abroad programs can be arranged at undergraduate and graduate levels in high quality Indian institutions, which have facilities of international standards. Students of the foreign universities will get the most memorable study abroad experience possible.

Students will pay the regular tuition and fees, room and board expenses, to their parent institution. The foreign universities will pay an agreed amount to Indian institutions for providing tuition, room and board. International travel costs will be borne by the students.
Collaboration Methodology

Curricula of Programs: The curricula of degree, diploma, and certificate programs will be in tune with the guidelines established by the relevant accrediting agencies of the foreign universities. The course exercises, along with home-works, assignments and examinations will be provided by the foreign universities to ensure that the courses of study in India for obtaining degrees, diplomas, and certificates meet their academic standards. In the case of twinning/transfer programs, the curricula will be the regular existing curricula of the Indian institutions, though it may be supplemented by additional curricula of the foreign universities, if desired by Indian institutions.

Teaching: The course materials and teaching methods will be the same as the ones offered in the foreign universities. Indian institutions will follow the same study guidelines as the foreign universities. A faculty member may be deputed by the foreign universities, for short duration of two weeks every semester for presenting parts of each program. Carefully selected Indian faculty will present remainder of the programs. Round-trip travel to India of visiting faculty members will be borne by Indian institutions. Room and board of international standards will be provided to visiting faculty members in India. In addition, Indian institutions will pay honoraria to the visiting faculty members.

Testing: The course exercises, along with home-works, assignments and examinations will be provided, administered, and graded by the faculty of Indian Institutions and foreign universities for the courses taught by them.

Faculty Support: Teaching in India will be done by the faculty of Indian institutions, though the foreign universities may depute a faculty member each semester for short periods of two weeks to teach courses. Competent Indian faculty members will conduct the programs. Indian faculty will have academic and other qualifications as per the standards of the accrediting agencies of foreign universities. State-of-the-art computing facilities and broad-band Internet connections will be provided by Indian institutions to enable students to access educational resources of the foreign universities such as faculty, libraries and computer centers.

Internships: Indian students will be encouraged to take up project works in corporate houses in India and abroad with the help of the Indian institutions and the foreign universities. However, the cost of such internships will be borne by students themselves. Both Indian institutions and the foreign universities will actively help the students to get internship opportunities in India and abroad.

Placement Support: Students who have successfully completed their degree, diploma, and certificate programs will be listed by Indian institutions and the foreign universities for tapping suitable placement opportunities with companies in India and foreign countries. Indian institutions and foreign universities will actively assist in placing successful candidates in India and abroad with the help of on-site and video / telephone interviews.

Collaboration responsibility: The administration of the programs would be split between Indian institutions and foreign universities. The responsibility of the foreign universities will include developing innovative curricula, sharing faculty, and joint projects. Foreign universities would be in-charge of programs, and course definition, whereas Indian institutions would handle local advertising and promotion, appointment of Indian faculty members, screening of students, admission of students, provision of infrastructure, and conducting of the programs.

Revenue Sharing: Currently, the cost of tuition for programs offered by premier educational institutions in India is around US $ 6,000 tp US$ 10,000 per year. Careful consideration will be given to current market trends by Indian institutions while setting competitive price of the programs in order to attract talented students across the country. The pricing of the programs will be fixed based on the expected demand for specific programs. The class size for each program will be around 60 students. Foreign universities will be paid a certain percent of tuition revenue of programs by Indian institutions. The percentage of the share of tuition revenue will depend on reputation, accreditation, and quality of the programs of Foreign universities.
Launch of Foreign Programs in India
Though the potential for launching collaborative programs in India by foreign universities is great, it has to be done in a thoughtful and methodical manner. The most important consideration is that the programs should be launched in India in collaboration with very well-established and reputable Indian institutions, companies, or organizations. A careful assessment has to be made about their commitment and financial resources. It is absolutely essential that the programs are run properly with highest quality standards. Ability to provide infrastructure of international standards for running the programs will be an important criterion in the selection of Indian institutions, companies, or organizations. Careful scrutiny has to be made in the initial stages for ensuring commercial success of the programs in India, apart from creating a good brand image for the Foreign universities. The Indus Foundation is willing to assist foreign universities for identification of suitable institutions, companies and organizations for launching the programs in India.